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A HUNDRED VERSES 
FROM OLD JAPAN 

BEING A 

TRANSLATION OF THE HYAKU-NIN-ISSHIU 



BY 

WILLIAM N. PORTER 



OXFORD 

AT THE CLARENDON PRESS 
1909 



HENRY FROWDE, M.A. 

PUBLISHER TO THE UNIVERSITY OF OXFORD 

LONDON, EDINBURGH, NEW YORK 

TORONTO AND MELBOURNE 




INTRODUCTION 

THE Hyaku-nin-isshiu, or ' Single Verses by a Hun- 
dred People', were collected together in A.D. 1235 
by Sadaiye Fujiwara, who included as his own contribu- 
tion verse No. 97. They are placed in approximately 
chronological order, and range from about the year 
670 to the year of compilation. The Japanese devote 
themselves to poetry very much more than we do ; 
and there is hardly a home in Japan, however humble, 
where these verses, or at least some of them, are not 
known. They are, and have been for many years, 
used also in connexion with a game of cards, in which 
the skill consists in fitting parts of the different verses 
together. 

Japanese poetry differs very largely from anything 
we are used to ; it has no rhyme or alliteration, and 
little, if any, rhythm, as we understand it. The 
verses in this Collection are all what are called Tanka, 
which was for many years the only form of verse 
known to the Japanese. A tanka verse has five lines 



iv INTRODUCTION 

and thirty-one syllables, arranged thus : 5-7-5-7-7 ; 
as this is an unusual metre in our ears, I have adopted 
for the translation a five-lined verse of 8-6-8-6-6 
metre, with the second, fourth, and fifth lines rhyming, 
in the hope of retaining at least some resemblance to 
the original form, while making the sound more 
familiar to English readers. 

I may perhaps insert here, as an example, the follow- 
ing well-known tanka verse, which does not appear in 
the Hyaku-nin-isshiu collection : 

Idete inaba 
Nushinaki yado to 

Narinu tomo 
Nokiba no ume yo 
Haru wo wasuruna. 

Though masterless my home appear, 
When I have gone away, 

Oh plum tree growing by the eaves, 
Forget not to display 
Thy buds in spring, I pray. 

This was written by Sanetomo Minamoto on the 
morning of the day he was murdered at Kamakura, as 
related in the note to verse No. 93. 

It is necessarily impossible in a translation of this 
kind to adhere at all literally to the text ; more 
especially as Japanese poetry abounds in all sorts of 



INTRODUCTION v 

puns, plays upon words, and alternative meanings, 
which cannot be rendered into English. For example, 
a favourite device with Japanese verse-writers is to 
introduce what Professor Chamberlain calls a ' pivot- 
word ', which they consider adds an elegant touch to 
the composition. An instance of this will be found 
in verse No. 16, where the word matsu, though only 
appearing once, must be understood twice with its two 
different meanings. It is almost as if we should say, 
' Sympathy is what I needless to say I never get it.' 
Other peculiarities of Japanese verse, as Professor 
Chamberlain points out, are the ' pillow-word ', or 
recognized conventional epithet (see verse No. 17), 
and the * preface ', where the first two or three lines 
appear to have only the slightest connexion with the 
main idea, and simply serve as an introduction (see 
verse No. 27). 

The Hyaku-nin-isshiu, like all .Japanese classical 
poetry, contains no Chinese words, such as are so 
extensively introduced into the modern spoken lan- 
guage ; it consists of poetical ideas clothed in poetical 
language, compressed within the regulation metre, 
embellished with various elegant word-plays, and is 
absolutely free from any trace of vulgarity. In the old 
days it was only the nobles, court officials, and church 



vi INTRODUCTION 

dignitaries, who wrote verses ; or at all events only 
their verses have been handed down to our time, and 
the lower classes were not supposed to know anything 
at all about the art. 

Thus, it is related that long ago Prince Ota Dokwan 
was hunting with his retinue on the mountains ; and, 
a storm of rain coming on, he stopped at a mountain 
inn, to request the loan of a rain-coat ; a girl came at 
his call, and retired into the hut, coming back again 
in a few minutes looking rather confused, and without 
saying a word she humbly presented the Prince with 
a yamabuki blossom (a kind of yellow rose) on an out- 
stretched fan. The Prince, much incensed at being 
trifled with like this, turned on his heel, and went off 
in high dudgeon ; until one of his attendants re- 
minded him of a well-known verse, which runs : 

Nanae yae 
Hana wa sake domo 

Yamabuki no 
Mi no hitotsu dani 
Naka zo kanashiki. 

The yamabuki blossom has 

A wealth of petals gay ; 
But yet in spite of this, alas ! 

I much regret to say, 

No seed can it display. 



INTRODUCTION vii 

The words as printed in the last couplet mean, ' I 
am very sorry that it has not a single seed ' ; but, if 
mino is taken as one word, it would mean, ' I am very 
sorry that (the yamabuki, i.e. herself, the mountain 
flower) has not any rain-coat '. And this was the 
maiden's delicate apology. The Prince, we are told, 
was astonished to find such culture and learning in 
a peasant girl ! 

Perhaps what strikes one most in connexion with 
the Hyaku-nin-isshiu is the date when the verses were 
written ; most of them were produced before the 
time of the Norman Conquest, and one cannot but 
be struck with the advanced state of art and culture 
in Japan at a time when England was still in a very 
elementary stage of civilization. 

The Collection, as will be seen, consists almost 
entirely of love-poems and what I may call picture- 
poems, intended to bring before the mind's eye some 
well-known scene in nature ; and it is marvellous what 
perfect little thumbnail sketches are compressed within 
thirty-one syllables, however crude and faulty the 
translation may be ; for instance, verses Nos. 79, 87, 
and 98. But the predominating feature, the under- 
current that runs through them all, is a touch of pathos, 
which is characteristic of the Japanese. It shows out 



viii INTRODUCTION 

in the cherry blossoms which are doomed to fall, the 
dewdrops scattered by the wind, the mournful cry of 
the wild deer on the mountains, the dying crimson of 
the fallen maple leaves, the weird sadness of the cuckoo 
singing in the moonlight, and the loneliness of the 
recluse in the mountain wilds ; while those verses 
which appear to be of a more cheerful type are rather 
of the nature of the ' Japanese smile ', described by 
Lafcadio Hearn as a mask to hide the real feelings. 

Some explanation is necessary as to the names of 
the writers of the different verses. The Japanese 
custom is to place the family or clan name first, 
followed by the preposition no (of), and then the 
rest of the name ; but, as this would be appreciated only 
by those who are familiar with the language, the names 
have been transposed, and the titles and ranks trans- 
lated, as far as possible, into English. At the same 
time the full name and title have also been given 
on the left hand page in their Japanese form ; for 
many of these names, such as Yamabe no Akahito, 
Abe no Nakamaro, Ono no Komachi, are so well 
known to Japanese students that they would hardly 
be recognized in their transposed form. 

A word may be added as to pronunciation, for the 
benefit of those who are not familiar with Japanese ; 



INTRODUCTION ii 

every vowel in poetry must be sounded, there are no 
diphthongs, a long vowel is lengthened out, as if it 
were two syllables, a final n, which was originally mu, 
must be sounded as a full syllable, and a final vowel 
is generally elided, if the following word begins with 
a vowel. The continental sound is to be given to 
a, f, and i, and the aspirate is sounded. 

The illustrations have been reproduced from a 
native edition of the Hyaku-qin-isshiu, which prob- 
ably dates from the end of the eighteenth century, 
and which has been kindly lent to me by Mr. F. V. 
Dickins, C.B., to whom I am much indebted ; as will 
be seen, they generally illustrate the subject of the 
verse, but occasionally they appear to represent the 
conditions under which the verse was written. 

For most of the information contained in the notes 
the present Translator is indebted to the researches of 
Professor B. H. Chamberlain, F.R.G.S., Professor Clay 
MacCauley, and Mr. F. V. Dickins, C.B. ; his thanks 
are also due to Mr. S. Uchigasaki, for his kind assis- 
tance towards the meaning of some of the more obscure 
passages. He makes no claim that his verses have any 
merit as English poetry ; nor, where there is so much 
uncertainty among the Japanese themselves as to the 
real meaning of some of these old verses, does he claim 



x INTRODUCTION 

that his translation is in all cases the correct one. In 
two or three instances the original has been purposely 
toned down somewhat, to suit English ideas. He has, 
however, tried to reproduce these Verses from Old 
Japan in such a way, that a few of the many, who 
now are unfamiliar with the subject, may feel sufficient 
interest in them to study a more scholarly translation, 
such as that by Mr. F. V. Dickins, recently published 
in the Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, or Professor 
MacCauley's literal translation, both of which are 
evidently the result of hard labour and great care j 
and may thus learn to appreciate a branch of Japanese 
art which has been far too much neglected up to 
the present. 

W. N. P. 



'Whatever Defects, as, I doubt not, there will be many, fall 
under the Reader's Observation, I hope his Candour will incline 
him to make the following Reflections : That the Works of 
Orientals contain many Peculiarities, and that thro' Defect of 
Language few European Translators can do them Justice.' 

WILLIAM COLLINS. 



TENCHI TENNO 

Aki no ta no 
Kari ho no iho no 

Toma wo arami 
Waga koromode wa 
Tsuyu ni nure-tsutsu. 




THE EMPEROR TENCHI 

OUT in the fields this autumn day 
They're busy reaping grain ; 

I sought for shelter 'neath this roof, 
But fear I sought in vain, 
My sleeve is wet with rain. 



The Emperor Tenchi reigned from A.D. 668 to 671, 
his capital was Otsu, not far from Kyoto, and he is 
chiefly remembered for his kindness and benevolence. 
It is related, that one day he was scaring birds away, 
while the harvesters were gathering in the crop, and, 
when a shower of rain came on, he took shelter in 
a neighbouring hut ; it was, however, thatched only 
with coarse rushes, which did not afford him much 
protection, and this is the incident on which the verse 
is founded. 

The picture shows the harvesters hard at work in the 
field, and the hut where the Emperor took shelter. 



JITO TENNO 

Haru sugite 
Natsu ki ni kerashi 

Shirotae no 
Koromo hosu ten 
Ama-no-kagu yama 




THE EMPRESS JITO 

1HE spring has gone, the summer 's come, 
And I can just descry 

The peak of Ama-no-kagu, 
Where angels of the sky 
Spread their white robes to dry. 



The Empress Jito reigned A.D. 690-696, during which 
time sake was first made and drunk in Japan ; she was 
the daughter of the Emperor Tenchi, the writer of 
the previous verse, and she married the Emperor 
Temmu, ascending the throne herself on his death. 
The poem refers to a snow-capped mountain just 
visible on the horizon. One of the No dramas relates, 
that an angel once came to a pine forest on the coast 
near Okitsu, and, hanging her feather mantle on a pine 
tree, climbed a neighbouring mountain to view Mount 
Fuji ; a fisherman, however, found the robe and was 
about to carry it off with him, when the angel re- 
appeared and begged him to give it her, as without it 
she could not return to the moon where she lived. 
He only consented to do so, however, on condition 
that she would dance for him ; and this she accord- 
ingly did, draped in her feathery robe on the sandy 
beach under the shade of the pine trees ; after which 
she floated heavenward, and was lost to view. 



KAKI-NO-MOTO NO HITOMARO 

Ashibiki no 
Yamadori no o no 

Shidario no 
Naga-nagashi yo wo 
Hitori ka mo nemu. 







THE NOBLEMAN KAKI-NO-MOTO 

LONG is the mountain pheasant's tail 
That curves down in its flight ; 

But longer still, it seems to me, 
Left in my lonely plight, 
Is this unending night. 



The writer was a foundling, picked up and adopted 

i by Abaye at the foot of a persimmon tree, which is in 

^ Japanese kaki, from which he got his name. He was 

an attendant on the Emperor Mommu, who reigned 

A.D. 697-707, and was one of the great poets of the 

early days of Japan ; he is known as the rival of Akahito 

Yamabe (see next verse), and after death was deified as 

a God of Poetry. There is a temple erected in his 

honour at Ichi-no-Moto, and another at Akashi, not 

far from Kobe ; he died in the year 737. 

In the fourth line nagashi may be taken as the 
adjective ' long ', or the verb ' to drift along ' ; and 
yo may mean either ' night ' or ' life ' ; so that this 
line, which I have taken as ' long, long is the night ', 
may also mean ' my life is drifting, drifting along '. 
Tamadori (pheasant) is literally ' mountain bird ', and 
askibiki is a pillow-word for mountain, which is itself 
the first half of the word for pheasant. 



PORTER 



YAMABE NO AKAHITO 

Tago no ura ni 
Uchi-idete mireba 

Shirotae no 
Fuji no takane ni 
Yuki vva furi-tsutsu. 




AKAHITO YAMABE 

I STARTED off along the shore, 

The sea shore at Tago, 
And saw the white and glist'ning peak 

Of Fuji all aglow 

Through falling flakes of snow. 



Akahito Yamabe lived about A.D. 700, and was one 
of the greatest of the early poets ; he was contem- 
porary with Kaki-no-Moto, the writer of the previous 
verse, and like him was deified as a God of Poetry. 
Tago is a seaside place in the Province of Izu, famous 
for its beautiful view of Mount Fuji. 



B 2 



SARU MARU TAIU 

Oku yama ni 
Momiji fumi wake 

Naku shika no 
Koe kiku toki zo 
Aki wa kanashiki. 





SARU MARU, A SHINTO OFFICIAL 

I HEAR the stag's pathetic call 
Far up the mountain side, 

While tramping o'er the maple leaves 
Wind-scattered far and wide 
This sad, sad autumn tide. 



Very little is known of this writer, but he probably 
lived not later than A.D. 800. Stags and the crimson 
leaves of the maple are frequently used symbolically of 
autumn. 



CHU-NAGON YAKAMOCHI 

Kasasagi no 
Wataseru hashi ni 

Oku shimo no 
Shiroki wo mireba 
Yo zo fake ni keru. 




THE IMPERIAL ADVISER YAKAMOCHI 

WHEN on the Magpies' Bridge I see 

The Hoar-frost King has cast 
His sparkling mantle, well I know 

The night is nearly past, 

Daylight approaches fast. 

The author of this verse was Governor of the Pro- 
vince of Koshu, and Viceroy of the more or less 
uncivilized northern and eastern parts of Japan ; he 
died A.D. 785. There was a bridge or passageway in the 
Imperial Palace at Kyoto called the Magpies' Bridge, 
but there is also an allusion here to the old legend 
about the Weaver and Herdsman. It is said, that the 
Weaver (the star Vega) was a maiden, who dwelt on 
one side of the River of the Milky Way, and who was 
employed in making clothes for the Gods. But one 
day the Sun took pity upon her, and gave her in 
marriage to the Herdboy (the star Aquila), who lived 
on the other side of the river. But as the result of 
this was that the supply of clothes fell short, she was 
only permitted to visit her husband once a year, viz. 
on the seventh night of the seventh month ; and on 
this night, it is said, the magpies in a dense flock form 
a bridge for her across the river. The hoar frost forms 
just before day breaks. The illustration shows the 
Herdboy crossing on the Bridge of Magpies to his 
bride. 



ABE NO NAKAMARO 

Ama no Kara 
Furisake-mireba 

Kasuga naru 
Mikasa no yama ni 
Ideshi tsuki kamo. 





NAKAMARO ABE 

WHILE gazing up into the sky, 
My thoughts have wandered far ; 
Methinks I see the rising moon 
Above Mount Mikasa 
At far-off Kasuga. 



The poet, when sixteen years of age, was sent with 
two others to China, to discover the secret of the 
Chinese calendar, and on the night before sailing for 
home his friends gave him a farewell banquet. It was 
a beautiful moonlight night, and after dinner he com- 
posed this verse. Another account, however, says that 
the Emperor of China, becoming suspicious, caused 
him to be invited to a dinner at the top of a high 
pagoda, and then had the stairs removed, in order that 
he might be left to die of hunger. Nakamaro is said 
to have bitten his hand and written this verse with his 
blood, after which he appears to have escaped and fled 
to Annam. Kasuga, pronounced Kasunga, is a famous 
temple at the foot of Mount Mikasa, near Nara, the 
poet's home ; the verse was written in the year 726, 
and the author died in 780. 



KIZEN HOSHI 

Waga iho wa 
Miyako no tatsumi 

Shika zo sumu 
Yo wo Uji yama to 
Hito wa iu nari. 




8 



THE PRIEST KIZEN 

MY home is near the Capital, 
My humble cottage bare 

Lies south-east on Mount Uji ; so 
The people all declare 
My life 's a ' Hill of Care '. 



The priest Kizen lived on Mount Uji, which lies 
south-east of Kyoto, at this time the Capital. The 
word uji or ushi means ' sorrow ' ; so he says that, as he 
lives on Mount Sorrow, his friends say his life is ' a 
mountain of sorrows '. Notice also the two words 
yama to in the fourth line, which, if read as one word, 
form the ancient name of Japan. In the picture we 
see the priest sitting alone in his little hut, his poverty 
being shown by the patches on the roof. 



ONO NO KOMACHI 

Hana no iro wa 
Utsuri ni keri na 

Itazura ni 

Waga mi yo ni furu 
Nagame seshi ma ni. 




KOMACHI ONO 

1 HE blossom's tint is washed away 

By heavy showers of rain ; 
My charms, which once I prized so much, 

Are also on the wane, 

Both bloomed, alas ! in vain. 



The writer was a famous poetess, who lived A.D. 834- 
880. She is remembered for her talent, her beauty, 
her pride, her love of luxury, her frailty, and her 
miserable old age. The magic of her art is said to 
have overcome a severe drought, from which the 
country suffered in the year 866, when prayers to the 
Gods had proved useless. 

The first and last couplets may mean either ' the 
blossom's tint fades away under the continued down- 
pour of rain in the world ', or ' the beauty of this 
flower (i. e. herself) is fading away as 1 grow older and 
older in this life ' ; while the third line dividing the 
two couplets means, that the flower's tint and her 
own beauty are alike only vanity. This verse, with its 
double meaning running throughout, is an excellent 
example of the characteristic Japanese play upon 
words. 



10 



SEMI MARU 

Kore ya kono 
Yuku mo kaeru mo 

Wakarete wa 
Shiru mo shiranu mo 
Ausaka no seki. 




10 

SEMI MARU 

1 HE stranger who has travelled far, 
The friend with welcome smile, 

All sorts of men who come and go 
Meet at this mountain stile, 
They meet and rest awhile. 



Semi Maru is said to have been the son of the 
Emperor Uda, who reigned A.D. 888-897. He became 
blind, and so, being unable to ascend the throne, he 
retired to a hut on the hills, near to a barrier gate, and 
amused himself with his guitar. The translation does 
not fully reproduce the antithesis of the original ' this 
or that man, people coming and going, long lost friends 
and strangers '. The last line is literally ' the barrier 
on the mountain road of meeting ' ; and Osaka no Seki, 
as the name is now spelled, a small hill on the edge of 
Lake Biwa, not far from Kyoto, is the site commemo- 
rated in this verse. 



II 



SANGI TAKAMURA 

Wada no hara 
Yasoshima kakete 

Kogi idenu to 
Hito ni wa tsugeyo 
Ama no tsuribune. 




II 



THE PRIVY COUNCILLOR TAKAMURA 

OH ! Fishers in your little boats, 
Quick ! tell my men, I pray, 

They'll find me at Yasoshima, 
I'm being rowed away 
Far off across the bay. 



Takamura, a well-known scholar, rose from poverty 
to riches on being appointed a Custom-house officer 
for the ships trading to and from China. His enemies 
reported him to the Emperor as an extortioner and 
a thief, and he was deported to Yasoshima, a group of 
small islands off the coast ; he is said to have composed 
this song and sung it to the fishing-boats, as he was 
being carried off. He was afterwards pardoned and 
reinstated, dying in the year 852. 



PORTER 



12 

SOJO HENJO 

Amatsu kaze 
Kumo no kayoiji 

Fuki tojiyo 
Otome no sugata 
Shibashi todomemu. 




12 



BISHOP HENJO 

OH stormy winds, bring up the clouds, 
And paint the heavens grey ; 

Lest these fair maids of form divine 
Should angel wings display, 
And fly far far away. 



The poet's real name was Munesada Yoshimune, and 
he was the great-grandson of the Emperor Kwammu. 
On the death of the Emperor Nimmyo, to whom he 
was much devoted (A.D. 850), he took holy orders, and 
in the year 866 was made a bishop. He died in the 
year 890, at the age of seventy, from being buried, by 
his own wish, in a small stone tomb covered with soil, 
with only a small pipe leading from his mouth to the 
open air ; he remained thus, until hunger and ex- 
haustion put an end to his life. He, is said to have 
composed the above verse, before he entered the 
priesthood, on seeing a dance of some maidens at 
a Court entertainment ; he pretends that the ladies 
are so beautiful that they can be nothing less than 
angels, and he is afraid they will fly away, unless the 
wind will bring up the clouds to bar their passage. 
In the picture he is shown with two acolytes, apparently 
addressing the wind. 

C 2 



13 

YOZEI IN 

Tsukuba ne no 
Mine yori otsuru 

Mina no kawa 
Koi zo tsumorite 
Fuchi to nari nuru. 




THE RETIRED EMPEROR YOZEI 

1 HE Mina stream comes tumbling down 
From Mount Tsukuba's height ; 

Strong as my love, it leaps into 
A pool as black as night 
With overwhelming might. 



It was a frequent custom in the old days for the 
Emperors of Japan to retire into the church or private 
life, when circumstances demanded it. The Emperor 
Yozei, who was only nine years of age when he came 
to the throne, went out of his mind, and was forced by 
Mototsune Fujiwara to retire ; he reigned A.D. 877- 
884, and did not die till the year 949. The verse was 
addressed to the Princess Tsuridono-no-Miko. Mount 
Tsukuba (2,925 feet high) and the River Mina are in the 
Province of Hitachi. 

Koi here means the dark colour of the water from its 
depth, but it also means his love, and is to be under- 
stood both ways. Note also mine, a mountain peak, 
and Mina, the name of the river. 



14 

KAWARA NO SADAIJIN 

Michinoku no 
Shinobu moji-zuri 

Tare yue ni 
Midare-some nishi 
Ware naranaku ni. 




THE MINISTER-OF-THE-LEFT OF THE KAWARA 
(DISTRICT OF KYOTO) 

AH ! why does love distract my thoughts, 

Disordering my will ! 
I'm like the pattern on the cloth 

Of Michinoku hill, 

All in confusion still. 



The old capital of Kyoto was divided into right and 
left districts, and the above is only an official title ; 
the poet's name was Tom Minamoto, and he died in 
the year 949. At Michinoku, in the Province of 
Iwashiro, in old times a kind of figured silk fabric was 
made, called mofi-zuri, embroidered with an intricate 
pattern, which was formed by placing vine leaves on 
the material, and rubbing or beating them with a stone 
until the impression was left on the ,silk. There is a 
hill close by, called Mount Shinobu, and a small 
temple, called Shinobu Moji-zuri Kwannon. Shinobu 
can also mean ' a vine ', * to love ', or to ' conceal (my 
love) '. The meaning of this very involved verse appears 
to be, that his thoughts are as confused with love as the 
vine pattern on the embroidered fabric made at Mount 
Michinoku. The picture seems to show the lady with 
whom the poet was in love. 



15 

KWOKO TENN5 

Kimi ga tame 
Haru no no ni idete 

Wakana tsumu 
Waga koromode ni 
Yuki vva furi-tsutsu. 




THE EMPEROR KWOKO 

MOTHER, for thy sake I have been 

Where the wakana grow, 
To bring thee back some fresh green leaves ; 

And see my koromo 

Is sprinkled with the snow ! 



Kwoko was raised to the throne by the Fujiwara 
family, when the mad Emperor Yozei was deposed ; he 
reigned A.D. 885-887, and is said to have composed this 
verse in honour of his grandmother. 

Wakana, literally * young leaves ', is a vegetable in 
season at the New Year ; a koromo is really a priest's 
garment, but is used here for the Emperor's robe. 

In the picture we see the Emperor gathering the 
fresh green leaves, and the snow falling from the sky. 



i6 



CHU-NAGON ARIWARA NO YUKI-HIRA 

Tachi wakare 
Inaba no yama no 

Mine ni oru 
Matsu to shi kikaba 
Ima kaeri-komu. 




i6 



THE IMPERIAL ADVISER YUKI-HIRA ARIWARA 

IF breezes on Inaba's peak 
Sigh through the old pine tree, 

To whisper in my lonely ears 
That thou dost pine for me, 
Swiftly I'll fly to thee. 



Yuki-hira was the Governor of the Province of Inaba, 
and half-brother of the writer of the next verse ; he 
died in the year 893, aged 75. 

The word matsu in the original may mean ' a pine 
tree ', but it may also mean ' waiting and longing for '. 
This is an instance of a ' pivot-word ', imitated to a 
certain extent in the translation, although in English 
we have to employ the word twice over, while it only 
appears once in the Japanese. 

The illustration shows the pine tree on the mountain, 
and the poet standing under it with two attendants. 



ARIWARA NO NARI-HIRA ASON 

Chi haya furu 
Kami yo mo kikazu 

Tatsuta gawa 
Kara kurenai ni 
Mizu kuguru to wa. 




THE MINISTER NARI-HIRA ARIWARA 

ALL red with leaves Tatsuta's stream 
So softly purls along, 

The everlasting Gods themselves, 
Who judge 'twixt right and wrong, 
Ne'er heard so sweet a song. 



The writer, who lived A.D. 825-880, was the grand- 
son of the Emperor Saga, and was the Don Juan of Old 
Japan ; he was banished because of an intrigue he had 
with the Empress, and his adventures are fully related 
in the Ise-Monogatari. The Tatsuta stream is not far 
from Nara, and is famous for its maples in autumn. 
Chi baya furu, literally ' thousand quick brandishing 
(swords) ', is a ' pillow-word ', or recognized epithet, 
for the Gods, and almost corresponds to Virgil's Pious 
Aeneas, and Homer's ' Odysseus, the son of Zeus, 
Odysseus of many devices'. It may be noted that 
these * pillow-words ' only occur in the five-syllable 
lines, never in the longer lines. 

In the picture we see the poet looking at a screen, on 
which is depicted the river with the red maple leaves 
floating on it. 



i8 



FUJIWARA NO TOSHI-YUKI ASON 

Sumi-no-ye no 
Kishi ni yoru nami 

Yoru sae ya 
Yume no kayoi-ji 
Hito-me yokuramu. 




i8 



THE MINISTER TOSHI-YUKI FUJIWARA 

TO-NIGHT on Sumi-no-ye beach 
The waves alone draw near ; 

And, as we wander by the cliffs, 
No prying eyes shall peer, 
No one shall dream we're here. 



Toshi-yuki, who lived A.D. 880-907, was an officer of 
the Imperial Guard, and a member of the great and 
influential Fujiwara family. This family rose into 
power in the reign of the Emperor Tenchi, and 
became almost hereditary ministers-of-state. For a 
long period the Emperors chose their wives from this 
family only, and to this day a large number of the 
Japanese nobility are sprung from the same stock. 
Sumi-no-ye, or Sumi-yoshi, is in the Province of 
Settsu, near Kobe. 

Note the word yoru used twice ; in the first instance 
is a verb, meaning ' to approach ', and in the next line 
meaning ' night '. The illustration shows Toshi-yuki 
walking on the beach, and evidently waiting for the 
lady to join him. 



ISE 

Naniwa gata 
Mijikaki ashi no 

Fushi no ma mo 
Awade kono yo wo 
Sugushite 70 to ya. 




THE PRINCESS ISE 

SHORT as the joints of bamboo reeds 
That grow beside the sea 

On pebble beach at Naniwa, 
I hope the time may be, 
When thou 'rt away from me. 



The Princess Ise was the daughter of Tsugukage 
Fujiwara, the Governor of the Province of Ise ; hence 
her name. She lived at the Imperial Court, and was 
the favourite maid of honour of the Emperor Uda, who 
reigned A.D. 888-897. She was noted for her talents 
and gentle disposition, and was the mother of Prince 
Katsura. Naniwa is the old name of Osaka. The 
picture shows the Princess on the pebble beach at 
Naniwa, and to the left are the bamboo reeds. 



PORTER 



20 



MOTO-YOSHI SHINNO 

Wabi nureba 
Ima hata onaji 

Naniwa naru 
Mi wo tsukushite mo 
Awamu to zo omou. 




20 

THE HEIR-APPARENT MOTO-YOSHI 

WE met but for a moment, and 
I'm wretched as before ; 

The tide shall measure out my life, 
Unless I see once more 
The maid, whom I adore. 



The composer of this verse was the son of the 
Emperor Yozei, who reigned A.D. 877-884 ; he was 
noted for his love-affairs, and he died in the year 943. 

Mi wo tsukushite mo means ' even though I die in the 
attempt ', but miotsukusbi is a graduated stick, set up to 
measure the rise and fall of the tide ; and Naniwa, the 
modern seaport of Osaka, seems to have been inserted 
chiefly as the place where this tide-gauge was set up. 
The poet may have meant, that the river of his tears 
was so deep as to require a gauge to measure it ; or, 
as Professor MacCauley reads it, he was hinting, that 
if he could not attain his ends his body would be found 
at the tide-gauge in Naniwa Bay. The picture seems 
to show the poet on the verandah and his lady-love 
looking through the screen. 



D 2 



21 



SOSEI HOSHI 

Ima kon to 
lishi bakari ni 

Naga-tsuki no 
Ariake no tsuki 
Wo machi izuru kana. 




21 



THE PRIEST SOSEI 

1 HE moon that shone the whole night through 

This autumn morn I see, 
As here I wait thy well-known step, 

For thou didst promise me 

' I'll surely come to thee.' 



Sosei is supposed to have been the son of Bishop 
Henjo, the writer of verse No. 12, born before the 
latter entered the church, about the year 850. His 
name as a layman was Hiro-nobu Yoshi-mine, and he 
became abbot of the Monastery of Riyau-inwin at Iso- 
no-kami, in the Province of Yamato. 



22 



BUNYA NO YASUHIDE 

Fuku kara ni 
Aki no kusa ki no 

Shiborureba 
Mube yama kaze wo 
Arashi to iuramu. 




22 

YASUHIDE BUNYA 

1 HE mountain wind in autumn time 
Is well called * hurricane ' ; 

It hurries canes and twigs along, 
And whirls them o'er the plain 
To scatter them again. 



This well-known writer lived in the ninth century, 
and was the father of Asayasu, who composed verse 
No. 37 ; he was also Vice-Director of the Imperial 
Bureau of Fabrics. 

The point of this verse lies in the ideographic 
characters of the original ; yama kaze (mountain wind) 
being written with two characters, which, when com- 
bined, form arashi (hurricane), and this, of course, it 
is quite impossible to reproduce correctly in the transla- 
tion. The picture shows the wind blowing down from 
the mountain behind the poet and waving his sleeves 
about. 



23 

OYE NO CHISATO 

Tsuki mireba 
Chiji ni mono koso 

Kanashi kere 
Waga mi hitotsu no 
Aki ni wa aranedo. 




CHISATO OYE 

I HIS night the cheerless autumn moon 

Doth all my mind enthrall ; 
But others also have their griefs, 

For autumn on us all 

Hath cast her gloomy pall. 



Chisato Oye is said to have lived about the end of the 
ninth century ; he was the son of a Councillor, and a 
very fertile poet. He was also famous as a philosopher, 
and acted as tutor to the Emperor Sei-wa, who reigned 
A.D. 859-876. 



24 

KWAN-KE 

Kono tabi wa 
Nusa mo tori-aezu 

Tamuke-yama 
Momiji no nishiki 
Kami no mani-mani. 




2 4 

KWAN-KE 

1 BRING no prayers on coloured silk 
To deck thy shrine to-day, 

But take instead these maple leaves, 
That grow at Tamuke ; 
Finer than silk are they. 



The name given above means ' A house of rushes ', 
but the poet's real name was Michizane Sugawara ; he 
was a great minister in the Emperor Uda's reign and 
a learned scholar ; his works comprise twelve books of 
poetry and two hundred volumes of history ; he was 
degraded in A.D. 901, and died two years later, an exile 
in Kinshu, aged fifty-nine. He is worshipped as Tenjin 
Sama, the God of Calligraphy, and is a favourite deity 
with schoolboys. 

Nusa are strips of coloured silk or cloth inscribed 
with prayers, which were presented at temples in the 
old days. Tamuke-yama no Hachiman, a temple at 
Nara, is the scene of this verse ; it is famous for its 
maple leaves, and the poet intended to say, that the 
crimson colour of its own maples was finer than any 
brocade that he could offer. Another allusion is, 
that Tamuke-yama, near Nara, means ' The Hill of 
Offerings '. 



25 

SANJO UDAIJIN 

Na ni shi owaba 
Ausaka yama no 

Sanekazura 
Hito ni shirarede 
Kuru yoshi mo gana. 




THE MINISTER-OF-THE-RIGHT OF THE SANJO 
(DISTRICT OF KYOTO) 

I HEAR thou art as modest as 

The little creeping spray 
Upon Mount Osaka, which hides 

Beneath the grass ; then, pray, 

Wander with me to-day. 



The writer's real name was Sadakata Fujiwara, and 
he died A.D. 932. For an account _of the Fujiwara 
family see verse No. 18. Mount Osaka mentioned 
here is the same place as that referred to in verse 
No. 10, and when spelled Ausaka it means ' a hill of 
meeting '. The suggestion is, that if she is really like 
the creeping vine which grows on Meeting Hill, she 
will come and meet him. 



26 



TEI-SHIN KO 

Ogura yama 
Mine no momiji-ba 

Kokoro araba 
Ima hito tabi no 
Miyuki matanamu. 




26 



PRINCE TEI-SHIN 

1 HE maples of Mount Ogura, 

If they could understand, 
Would keep their brilliant leaves, until 

The Ruler of this land 

Pass with his royal band. 



The above is the posthumous name given to Tada- 
hira Fujiwara, Imperial Chief Minister of State; he 
died about the year 936. It is related that the Emperor 
Uda, after his abdication, visited Mount Ogura in 
Yamashiro province, and was so greatly struck with the 
autumn tints of the maples, that he ordered Tada-hira 
to invite his son, the Emperor Daigo, to visit the 
scene ; and this verse was the invitation. The picture 
shows the Emperor with his attendants, and the 
maples all around him. 



CHU-NAGON KANESUKE 

Mika no Kara 
Wakite nagaruru 

Izumi gawa 
Itsu miki tote ka 
Koishi-karuramu. 




THE IMPERIAL ADVISER KANESUKE 

OH ! rippling River Izumi, 
That flows through Mika plain, 

Why should the maid I saw but now 
And soon shall see again 
Torment my love-sick brain? 



Kanesuke was a member of the Fujiwara family ; he 
died in the year 933. The River Izumi is in the Pro- 
vince of Yamashiro. 

The word-plays in this verse are Izumi, in the third 
line, which is imitated in the next line, and Mika, 
which is also repeated in the third line. The first 
three lines of this verse, about the river flowing 
through the plain, form a ' preface ', and appear to 
be inserted merely because itsu miki (when I have seen 
tier) sounds like Izumi. 



PORTER 



MINAMOTO NO MUNE-YUKI ASON 

Yama zato wa 
Fuyu zo sabishisa 

Masari keru 
Hito-me mo kusa mo 
Karenu to omoeba. 




28 



THE MINISTER MUNE-YUKI MINAMOTO 

I HE mountain village solitude 

In winter time I dread ; 
It seems as if, when friends are gone, 
And trees their leaves have shed, 
All men and plants are dead. 



The poet was a grandson of the Emperor Kwoko, 
and died A.D. 940. The Minamoto family, who sprang 
from the Emperor Seiwa, who reigned 856-877, was at 
one time very powerful, and produced many famous 
men, including Yoritomo, the great founder of the 
Shogunate. The Taira family and the Minamotos 
were the Yorks and Lancasters of mediaeval Japan ; 
but, after thirty years of warfare, Yoritomo finally 
defeated his rivals in a great battle fought at Dan-no- 
ura, in the Straits of Shimonoseki, in 1185 ; the entire 
Taira family was exterminated, including women and 
children, and the infant Emperor Antoku. The Mina- 
moto clan themselves became extinct in 1219, when 
Sanetomo was murdered at Kamakura, as related in 
the note to verse No. 93. 



E 2 



29 

OSHI-KOCHI NO MITSUNE 

Kokoro-ate ni 
Orabaya oramu 

Hatsu shimo no 
Oki madowaseru 
Shira giku no hana. 




2 9 



MITSUNE OSHI-KOCHI 

IT was a white chrysanthemum 

I came to take away ; 
But, which are coloured, which are white, 

I'm half afraid to say, 

So thick the frost to-day ! 



Mitsune lived some time in the beginning of the 
tenth century, and was one of the compilers of Odes 
Ancient and Modern (the Kokinshiu). The illustration 
shows him with a boy in attendance, trying to make up 
his mind which flower he will pick. 



NIBU NO TADAMINE 

Ariake no 
Tsurenaku mieshi 

Wakare yori 
Akatsuki bakari 
Uki-mono wa nashi. 




30 

TADAMINE NIBU 

I HATE the cold unfriendly moon, 
That shines at early morn ; 

And nothing seems so sad and grey, 
When I am left forlorn, 
As day's returning dawn. 



The writer lived to the age of ninety-nine, and died 
in the year 965. He was, like the composer of the 
previous verse, one of the compilers of the Kokinshiu, 
and was also the father of the author of verse No. 41. 

The picture seems to show the poet all alone looking 
out at the early dawn, but the moon is not visible. 



SAKA-NO-UYE NO KORENORI 

Asaborake 
Ariake no tsuki to 

Miru made ni 
Yoshino no sato ni 
Fureru shira yuki. 




KORENORI SAKA-NO-UYE 

SURELY the morning moon, I thought, 
Has bathed the hill in light ; 

But, no ; I see it is the snow 
That, falling in the night, 
Has made Yoshino white. 



Little is known about this poet, but he is said to 
have lived some time in the tenth century. Yoshino 
is a mountain village in the Province of Yamato, 
famous for its cherry blossoms ; at one time it con- 
tained the Imperial Summer Palace. In the illustra- 
tion we see the poet looking across at the village on 
the hills all covered with snow. 



HARUMICHI NO TSURAKI 

Yama gawa ni 
Kaze no kaketaru 

Shigarami wa 
Nagare mo aenu 
Momiji nari keri. 




32 

TSURAKI HARUMICHI 

J HE stormy winds of yesterday 
The maple branches shook ; 

And see ! a mass of crimson leaves 
Has lodged within that nook, 
And choked the mountain brook. 



The writer of this verse died in the year 864. 



33 

KINO TOMONORI 

Hisakata no 
Hikari nodokeki 

Haru no hi ni 
Shizu kokoro naku 
Hana no chiruramu. 




33 



TOMONORI KINO 

1 HE spring has come, and once again 
The sun shines in the sky ; 

So gently smile the heavens, that 
It almost makes me cry, 
When blossoms droop and die. 



Tomonori Kino was the grandson of Uchisukune 
Take, a famous warrior, and nephew of Tsura-yuki, who 
composed verse No. 35 ; he was one of the compilers 
of iheKoktnshiu, and died at the beginning of the tenth 
century. He refers in this verse to the fall of the 
cherry blossoms. 

Hisakata is a ' pillow-word ' for heaven, without any 
definite meaning in the present day ; it is generally 
used in poetry in conjunction with such words as sun, 
moon, sky, or, as in this case, ' the light ' (of heaven). 

The picture shows the poet with his attendant, 
watching the petals falling from the cherry tree. 



34 

FUJIWARA NO OKI-KAZE 

Tare wo ka mo 
Shiru hito nisemu 

Takasago no 
Matsu mo mukashi no 
Tomo nara-naku ni. 




34 

OKI-KAZE FUJIWARA 

VjONE are my old familiar friends, 
The men I used to know ; 

Yet still on Takasago beach 
The same old pine trees grow, 
That I knew long ago. 



Oki-kaze, the son of Michinari, was an official in the 
Province of Sagami in the year 911 ; the date of his 
death is unknown, but he is mentioned as being alive 
as late as the year 914. Takasago, which is mentioned 
again in verse No. 73, is a seaside place in the Province 
of Harima, famous for its pine trees ; the pine tree is 
one of the recognized emblems of long life in Japan, 
because it is believed that after a thousand years its 
sap turns to amber. 



35 



KINO TSURA-YUKI 

Hito wa iza 
Kokoro mo shirazu 

Furu sato wa 
Hana zo mukashi no 
Ka ni nioi keru. 




35 

TSURA-YUKI KINO 

1 HE village of my youth is gone, 
New faces meet my gaze ; 

But still the blossoms at thy gate, 
Whose perfume scents the ways, 
Recall my childhood's days. 



The writer of this verse, who lived A.D. 884-946, 
was a nobleman at Court, one of the greatest of the 
classical poets, and the first writer of Japanese prose. 
He was the chief compiler of the Kokinshiu, in which 
work he was assisted by the authors of verses Nos. 29, 
30, and 33. This work consists of twenty volumes, 
containing some eleven hundred verses, and was com- 
pleted in the year 922. It is related that Tsura-yuki 
once visited a friend after a long absence ; and on 
being asked jestingly by the latter, how he could re- 
member the way after such a long interval of time, 
the poet broke off a spray of blossoms from a plum 
tree growing at the entrance, and presented it to his 
friend with this impromptu verse. 



PORTER 



KIYOWARA NO FUKA-YABU 

Natsu no yo wa 
Mada yoi nagara 

Akenuru wo 
Kumo no izuko ni 
Tsuki yadoruramu. 





36 

FUKA-YABU KIYOWARA 

1 OO short the lovely summer night, 
Too soon 'tis passed away ; 

I watched to see behind which cloud 
The moon would chance to stay, 
And here 's the dawn of day ! 



Nothing is known of this writer, except that he was 
the father of the author of verse No. 42. 



F 2 



37 



BUNYA NO ASAYASU 

Shira tsuyu ni 
Kaze no fukishiku 

Aki no no wa 
Tsuranuki-tomenu 
Tama zo chiri keru. 




37 

ASAYASU BUNYA 

1 HIS lovely morn the dewdrops flash 
Like diamonds on the grass 

A blaze of sparkling jewels ! But 
The autumn wind, alas ! 
Scatters them as I pass. 



Asayasu, the son of the author of verse No. 22, lived 
about the end of the ninth century. He is said to 
have composed this verse at the request of the Emperor 
Daigo in the year 900. To liken the dewdrops to jewels 
or beads (tamo) is typical of Japanese verse. The 
picture shows the grass, and the dewdrops scattered 
on the ground in front of the poet. 



UKON 

Wasuraruru 
Mi woba omowazu 

Chikahite-shi 
Hito no inochi no 
Oshiku mo aru kana. 




38 

UKON 

MY broken heart I don't lament, 
To destiny I bow ; 

But thou hast broken solemn oaths,- 
I pray the Gods may now 
Absolve thee from thy vow. 



The Lady Ukon is supposed to have been deserted 
by her husband, and in this poem she regrets, not so 
much her own sorrow, as the fact that he has broken 
his sworn oath, and is therefore in danger of divine 
vengeance. The illustration shows her all alone at the 
gate, with the house in the background, evidently 
waiting for the husband who has forsaken her. 



39 



SANGI HITOSHI 

Asaju no 
Ono no shinowara 

Shinoburedo 
Amarite nado ka 
Hito no koishiki. 




39 

THE PRIVY COUNCILLOR HITOSHI 

1 IS easier to hide the reeds 
Upon the moor that grow, 
Than try to hide the ardent love 
That sets my cheeks aglow 
For somebody I know. 



Little is known of this poet, except that he lived 
some time in the tenth century. 

Note the word sbinowara, meaning 'a bamboo moor', 
contrasted with shinoburedo in the next line, which 
means * though I might manage to conceal '. 

The picture shows Hitoshi on the wild moor, with 
the reeds growing all around him. 



TAIRA NO KANEMORI 

Shinoburedo 
Iro ni ide ni keri 

Waga koi wa 
Mono ya omou to 
Hito no tou made. 




KANEMORI TAIRA 



ALAS ! the blush upon my cheek, 
Conceal it as I may, 

Proclaims to all that I'm in love, 
Till people smile and say 
* Where are thy thoughts to-day ? ' 



This verse is said to have been composed in the year 
949, at the request of the Emperor Daigo. The Taira 
family sprang from the Emperor Kwammu, attained 
great influence three hundred years later, but finally 
fell before the power of the Minamoto clan in the year 
1185 (see note to verse No. 28). 



NIBU NO TADAMI 

Koi su tefu 
Waga na wa madaki 

Tachi ni keri 
Hito shirezu koso 
Omoi-someshi ga. 




TADAMI NIBU 

OUR courtship, that we tried to hide, 

Misleading is to none ; 
And yet how could the neighbours guess, 

That I had yet begun 

To fancy any one? 



This poet was the son of the writer of verse No. 30, 
and he is said to have composed the poem on the same 
occasion as is mentioned for No. 40. 

The word omoi in the last line is a ' pivot-word ', 
used firstly in connexion with the fourth line, meaning 
' I thought ' (nobody knew), and also in conjunction 
with someshi, where it means ' I began to be in love '. 



42 

KIYOWARA NO MOTO-SUKE 

Chigiriki na 
Katami-ni sode wo 

Shibori-tsutsu 
Sue no Matsu-yama 
Nami kosaji to wa. 




MOTO-SUKE KIYOWARA 

OUR sleeves, all wet with tears, attest 

That you and I agree 
That to each other we'll be true, 

Till Pine-tree Hill shall be 

Sunk far beneath the sea. 



Moto-suke lived towards the close of the tenth 
century, and was the son of the writer of verse No. 36. 
The idea of one's sleeves being wet with tears is a 
common one in Japanese poetry. Matsu-yama, or 
Pine-tree Hill, is in Northern Japan, on the boundaries 
between the Provinces of Rikuchu and Nambu. In 
the illustration the hill with the pine tree on the top 
appears to be just sinking beneath the waves. 



43 

CHU-NAGON YATSU-TADA 

Ai-mite no 
Nochi no kokoro ni 

Kurabureba 
Mukashi wa mono wo 
Omowazari keri. 




43 



THE IMPERIAL ADVISER YATSU-TADA 

HOW desolate my former life, 
Those dismal years, ere yet 

I chanced to see thee face to face ; 
'Twere better to forget 
Those days before we met. 



Yatsu-tada was a member of the great Fujiwara 
family, and is said to have died in the year 943. 

It is interesting to note in these illustrations, as in 
nearly all old Japanese pictures, that the artist either 
takes off the roof of the house or removes part of the 
wall when he wishes you to see what is going on 
indoors. 



PORTER 



44 



CHU-NAGON ASA-TADA 

Au koto no 
Taete shi nakuba 

Naka naka ni 
Hito wo mo mi wo mo 
Uramizaramashi. 




44 

THE IMPERIAL ADVISER ASA-TADA 

I O fall in love with womankind 

Is my unlucky fate ; 
If only it were otherwise, 

I might appreciate 

Some men, whom now I hate. 



The writer of this verse was the son of Sadakata, 
a Minister-of-the-Right, and is said to have died in 
the year 961. The verse was composed at the instance 
of the Emperor Daigo, and is apparently written in 
praise of a life of single blessedness. The translation 
does not give the full force of the last two lines, which 
mean literally, * I should not dislike both other people 
and myself too.' The illustration shows Asa-tada 
walking on the verandah outside his house, perhaps 
composing this verse. 



C 2 



45 

KEN-TOKU KG 

Aware to mo 
lu beki hito wa 

Omohoede 
Mi no itazura ni 
Narinu beki kana. 




45 

PRINCE KEN-TOKU 

1 DARE not hope my lady-love 
Will smile on me again ; 

She knows no pity, and my life 
I care not to retain, 
Since all my prayers are vain. 



The real name of the writer of this verse was Kore- 
tada Fujiwara ; he died in the year 972, and Prince 
Ken-toku is his posthumous name. 

Aware to mo means, in conjunction with the next 
line, ' that she would give me words of pity ' ; but 
aware tomo can also mean ' to meet as a friend '. 

In spite of the Prince's fears, the illustration seems 
to suggest that his lady-love changed her mind, and 
came to visit him once more. 



4 6 



SO NE-YOSHI-TADA 

Yura no to wo 
Wataru funabito 

Kaji wo tae 
Yukue mo shiranu 
Koi no michi kana. 




4 6 



THE PRIEST NE-YOSHI-TADA 

THE fishing-boats are tossed about, 
When stormy winds blow strong ; 

With rudder lost, how can they reach 
The port for which they long? 
So runs the old love-song. 



Nothing is known of the writer of this verse, but he 
is said to have lived in the tenth century. The mean- 
ing, not very clearly expressed in the translation, is 
that the course of true love is as uncertain as the course 
of the rudderless fishing-boats. In the illustration we 
see the fishing-boat tossing about on a rough sea and 
the rudder duly floating away astern. 



47 

YE-KEI HOSHI 

Yaemugura 
Shigereru yado no 

Sabishiki ni 
Hito koso miene 
Aki wa ki ni keri. 




47 

THE PRIEST YE-KEI 

MY little temple stands alone, 
No other hut is near ; 

No one will pass to stop and praise 
Its vine-grown roof, I fear, 
Now that the autumn 's here. 



The Priest Ye-kei lived about the end of the tenth 
century, but nothing is known about him. In the 
picture he is shown outside his humble little temple 
with its patched roof and the vine growing up the 
wall. 



4 8 



MINAMOTO NO SHIGE-YUKI 

Kaze wo itami 
Iwa utsu nami no 

Onore nomi 
Kudakete mono wo 
Omou koro kana. 




SHIGE-YUKI MINAMOTO 

1 HE waves that dash against the rocks 

Are broken by the wind 
And turned to spray ; my loving heart 

Is broken too, I find, 

Since thou art so unkind. 



The writer of this verse is said to have died in the 
year 963 ; for a note about the great Minamoto family, 
see verse No. 28. In the picture we see Shige-yuki, 
with an attendant carrying his sword, walking on the 
shore, while the waves break into spray at his feet. 



49 

ONAKATOMI NO YOSHI-NOBU ASON 

Mikaki mori 
Eji no taku hi no 

Yo wa moete 
Him wa kie-tsutsu 
Mono wo koso omoe. 




49 



THE MINISTER YOSHI-NOBU, OF PRIESTLY RANK 

MY constancy to her I love 

I never will forsake ; 
As surely as the Palace Guards 

Each night their watch-fire make 

And guard it till daybreak. 



The author was the son of the Minister Yorimoto, 
and he lived during the latter part of the tenth century. 
The illustration shows the watchman outside the Palace 
tending his fire. 



FUJIWARA NO YOSHITAKA 

Kimi ga tame 
Oshikarazarishi 

Inochi sae 
Nagaku mogana to 
Omoi keru kana. 





YOSHITAKA FUJIWARA 

DEATH had no terrors, Life no joys, 
Before I met with thee ; 

But now I fear, however long 
My life may chance to be, 
'Twill be too short for me ! 



Yoshitaka died in the year 974. See verse No. 18 
for a note of the Fujivvara family. 



FUJIWARA NO SANEKATA ASON 

Kaku to dani 
Eyawa Ibuki no 

Sashi-mogusa 
Sashimo sliiraji na 
Moyuru omoi wo. 






THE MINISTER SANEKATA FUJIWARA 

1 HOUGH love, like blisters made from leaves 

Grown on Mount Ibuki, 
Torments me more than I can say, 

My lady shall not see, 

How she is paining me. 



The writer lived some time at the close of the tenth 
century. The artemisia plant (or mugwort) is used in 
Japan for cauterizing ; a conical wad of the leaves or 
blossoms is placed on the spot, lit at the top, and 
allowed to burn down to the skin ; this produces 
a blister, and is extremely painful. Ibuki is a hill, 
between the Provinces of Omi and Mino, famous for 
its artemisia, but ibuki can also stand for iu bfki, 
which, in conjunction with e ya wa, would mean, 
* Ah ! how could I tell her ! ' But eyawa as one 
word means * indescribable ! ' Notice also sashimo in 
the third and fourth lines ; sashi-mogusa means * the 
artemisia plant ', but sashi mo means * even though it 
is smarting ' ; sashimo, in one word, can also mean ' in 
such a way'. This verse is a very good example of 
the way the Japanese love to play upon words. The 
picture seems to show Mount Ibuki with the mugwort 
growing on it. 



PORTER 



FUJIWARA NO MICHI-NOBU ASON 

Akenureba 
Kururu mono to wa 

Shiri nagara 
Nao urameshiki 
Asaborake kana. 




THE MINISTER MICHI-NOBU FUJIWARA 

ALTHOUGH I know the gentle night 

Will surely follow morn, 
Yet, when I'm wakened by the sun, 

Turn over, stretch and yawn 

How I detest the dawn ! 



Michi-nobu lived in the tenth century. He is 
shown in the illustration with his wife on the verandah, 
watching the day break. 



H 2 



53 



UDAISHO MICHI-TSUNA NO HAHA 

Nageki-tsutsu 
Hitori nuru yo no 

Akuru ma wa 
Ikani hisashiki 
Mono to kawa shiru. 




53 



THE MOTHER OF MICHI-TSUNA, COMMANDER 
OF THE RIGHT IMPERIAL GUARDS 

ALL through the long and dreary night 

I lie awake and moan ; 
How desolate my chamber feels, 

How weary I have grown 

Of being left alone ! 



This lady was the daughter of Motoyasu Fujiwara, 
and the wife of the Regent Kaneie ; she was famous 
for her beauty, and lived in the reign of the Emperor 
Mura-kami (947-967). It is related, that her husband 
returned home late one night, and, having to wait 
a moment or two before she let him in, he angrily 
reproached her, and she replied with this verse (see 
illustration). 

To no akuru ma means ' until the dawn ', but akuru 
ma also suggests that the room is empty when he is 
away. 



54 



GIDO-SANSHI NO HAHA 

Wasureji no 
Yukusue made wa 

Katakereba 
Kyo wo kagiri no 
Inochi tomo gana. 





54 



THE MOTHER OF THE MINISTER OF STATE 

HOW difficult it is for men 

Not to forget the past ! 
I fear my husband's love for me 

Is disappearing fast ; 

This day must be my last. 



The real name of this lady was Taka, and her 
son's name was Korechika Fujiwara. She lived about 
A.D. 1004, and it is supposed that this verse was written 
in a fit of jealousy against her husband ; she is shown 
in the picture all alone at home bewailing her lot. 



DAI-NAGON KINTO 

Taki no oto wa 
Taete hisashiku 

Narinuredo 
Na koso nagarete 
Nao kikoe kere. 





55 



THE FIRST ADVISER OF STATE KINTO 

1 HIS waterfall's melodious voice 
Was famed both far and near ; 

Although it long has ceased to flow, 
Yet still with memory's ear 
Its gentle splash I hear. 



This poet was the father of the writer of verse 
No. 64, and was a member of the Fujiwara family at 
the zenith of their power ; he was a great statesman 
and scholar, and died in the year 1041. The verse 
was written in praise of a waterfall that had been 
made by the orders of the Emperor Saga early in the 
ninth century, but which had by this time ceased to 
exist ; and the illustration well shows the watercourse 
now run dry. 



IZUMI SHIKIBU 

Arazaramu 
Kono yo no hoka no 

Omoide ni 
Ima hito tabi no 
Au koto mo gana. 







56 

IZUMI SHIKIBU 

MY life is drawing to a close, 

I cannot longer stay, 
A pleasant memory of thee 

I fain would take away ; 

So visit me, I pray. 



This lady was the daughter of Masamine Oye, and 
the wife of Michisada Tachibana, Governor of the Pro- 
vince of Izumi, hence her name; and also was the 
mother of the author of verse No. 60. She lived 
about the latter end of the tenth century, and was 
one of the lady poets who gave distinction to that 
period. The verse was addressed to her husband or 
lover just before her death, and in the illustration we 
see her on her deathbed, with two , servants in the 
foreground. 



57 



MURASAKI SHIKIBU 

Meguri-aite 
Mishi ya sore tomo 

Wakanu ma ni 
Kumo gakure nishi 
Yowa no tsuki kana. 




57 



MURASAKI SHIKIBU 

I WANDERED forth this moonlight night, 

And some one hurried by ; 
But who it was I could not see, 

Clouds driving o'er the sky 

Obscured the moon on high. 



This lady lost her mother when very young, and her 
father, the minister Toyonari Fujiwara, married again. 
Her skill at composing verses caused her stepmother to 
become jealous, and the latter treated her with great 
cruelty. She married Nobutaka, a nobleman, and the 
following verse was written by her daughter. She is 
famous in Japanese literature as the authoress of Genji 
Monogatari y a historical work in fifty-four sections, 
which she wrote in the monastery of Ishiyama, near 
Kyoto. She was one night taking a moonlight stroll 
on her verandah and caught sight of her lover ; but, 
though she barely recognized him, the Kokinshiu, 
from which the verse is taken, adds that you are to 
understand that her reputation was overshadowed 
from that moment, like the moon behind the clouds. 
She died in the year 992. 

Sore tomo can mean either ' though I glanced at 
him ', or else (wakanu, I did not recognize) ' that 
friend '. 



DAINI NO SAMMI 

Arima yama 
Ina no sasawara 

Kaze fukeba 
Ide soyo hito wo 
Wasure yawa suru. 





58 

DAINI NO SAMMI 

AS fickle as the mountain gusts 
That on the moor I've met, 

'Twere best to think no more of thee, 
And let thee go. But yet 
I never can forget. 



The name given above is only a title, and the real 
name of this lady is unknown ; she was the daughter 
of the writer of the previous verse, and the wife of 
Daini Nariakira. The picture shows her on the moor 
composing the verse. Note the echoing sound in the 
last line, ' Wasure yzwa suru.' 



AKAZOME EMON 

Yasurawade 
Nenamaji mono wo 

Sayofukete 
Katabuku made no 
Tsuki wo mishi kana. 





59 



AKAZOME EMON 

WAITING and hoping for thy step, 
Sleepless in bed I lie, 

All through the night, until the moon, 
Leaving her post on high, 
Slips sideways down the sky. 



This writer is again a lady ; she is said to have 
addressed the verse to Michinaga Fujiwara, who held 
the office of Regent under the Emperor Ichijo (A. 0.987- 
1011) and his two successors. Regent here must be 
understood not exactly as a temporary or vice Emperor, 
but rather as the Emperor's confidential adviser, and 
the official through whom all communications were 
made. Notice the moon in the illustration just dis- 
appearing behind the hill. 



PORTER 



6o 



KO-SHIKIBU NO NAISHI 

Ohoye yama 
Ikuno no michi no 

Tohokereba 
Mada fumi mo mizu 
Ama-no-Hashidate. 




6o 



LADY-IN-WAITING KO-SHIKIBU 



long and dreary is the road, 
That I have never been 
To Ama-no-Hashidate ; 

Pray, how could I have seen 
The verses that you mean? 



Koshikibu was the daughter of the writer of verse 
No. 56, and early became known as a poetess. The 
story goes, that she was suspected of getting help from 
her mother in composing poetry ; and on one occasion, 
during the absence of the latter at Ama-no-Hashidate, 
she was selected to take part in a poetical contest at 
Court. A day or two before the event a nobleman 
laughingly asked her, if she was not expecting a letter 
from her mother, hinting that she would otherwise be 
unable to produce a poem good enough -for the contest, 
and she, touching his sleeve, improvised the above 
verse. The original brings in not only Ama-no- 
Hashidate, a picturesque bay in the Province of Tango, 
but also two other proper names, Mount Ohoye and 
Ikuno, which are on the road there from Kyoto ; but 
this the translation fails to do. 

The last couplet can mean ' I have not walked to 
or seen Ama-no-Hashidate ', and also, ' I have not 
seen any letter from Ama-no-Hashidate.' 

I 2 



6i 



ISE NO TAIU 

Inishie no 
Nara no Miyako no 

Yaezakura 
Kyo kokonoe ni 
Nioi nuru kana, 




6i 



THE LADY ISE 

1 HE double cherry trees, which grew 

At Nara in past days, 
Now beautify this Palace, and 

Their blossoms all ablaze 

Perfume the royal ways. 



The Lady Ise was another of the famous literary 
women, that distinguished the Imperial Court at the 
end of the tenth century ; she was associated with the 
Province of Ise, from which she gets her name. Nara 
was the capital city from A.D. 709 to 784, after which 
the Court moved to Kyoto. It is related, that during 
the reign of the Emperor Ichijo (A.D. 987-1011) a 
nobleman presented him with a spray of the eight- 
petalled cherry trees that grew at Nara ; the Emperor 
was so delighted, that he had the trees, or perhaps 
cuttings from them, brought to Kyoto, and this verse 
commemorates the event. 

Kokonoe (Palace) really means ' ninefold ', and refers 
to the nine enclosures of the Imperial Residence ; it 
is here contrasted with yaezakura, the eightfold or 
double cherry blossom. 



SEI SHO-NAGON 

Yo wo komete 
Tori no sorane wa 

Hakaru tomo 
Yo ni Ausaka no 
Seki wa yurusaji. 




62 



THE LADY SEI 

1 OO long to-night you've lingered here, 

And, though you imitate 
The crowing of a cock, 'twill not 

Unlock the tollbar gate ; 

Till daylight must you wait. 



The Lady Sei, Sho-nagon being merely a title, was 
the daughter of the writer of verse No. 42, and the 
authoress of Makura-no-Soshi y or ' A story book to 
keep under one's pillow ' ; she was, with the writer 
of verse No. 57, one of the greatest of Japanese authors. 
She was a lady-in-waiting at Court, and retired to 
a convent in the year 1000. This verse has reference 
to the Chinese story of Prince Tan Chu, who was shut 
up with his retainers in the town of Kankokkan ; the 
city gates were closed from sunset to, cockcrow, but 
during the night one of the Prince's followers so 
successfully imitated the crowing of a cock, that the 
guards, thinking it was daybreak, opened the gates, and 
the fugitives escaped under cover of the darkness. It 
is related, that the Emperor once noticed Lady Sei 
admiring the freshly fallen snow, and asked ' How 
is the snow of Koroho? ' She at once raised the 
window curtain, showing that she recognized the allu- 
sion to the verse ' The snow of Koroho is seen by 
raising the curtain '. 



SAKYO TAIU MICHIMASA 

Ima wa tada 
Omoi-taenamu 

Tobakari wo 
Hitozute narade 
lu yoshi mo gana. 




THE SHINTO OFFICIAL MICHIMASA ; OF THE 
LEFT SIDE OF THE CAPITAL 

IF we could meet in privacy, 
Where no one else could see, 

Softly I'd whisper in thy ear 
This little word from me 
' I'm dying, Love, for thee.' 



Michimasa was a member of the Fujiwara family, 
who lived about the year 1030. He fell in love with 
the Princess Masako, a priestess of Ise ; but when the 
Emperor heard of this, he put the Princess into con- 
finement, where she was strictly guarded by female 
warders, and this verse was Michimasa's request to her 
to try to arrange a private meeting with him. The 
words omoi-taenamu, which is the message he sends 
to her, mean, ' I shall die of love ' ; but they can also 
mean ' I shall think no more about you ' ; so perhaps 
he intended the verse to be read in different ways, 
according to whether it reached the Princess, or fell 
into the hands of her guards. In the picture Michi- 
masa is shown outside the fortress, where the Princess 
is confined. 



6 4 



GON CHU-NAGON SADA-YORI 

Asaborake 
Uji no kawagiri 

Tae-dae ni 
Araware wataru 
Seze no ajiro-gi. 




6 4 



THE ASSISTANT IMPERIAL ADVISER SADA-YORI 

oO thickly lies the morning mist, 

That I can scarcely see 
The fish-nets on the river bank, 

The River of Uji, 

Past daybreak though it be. 



The writer was the son of the author of verse No. 55 ; 
he died in the year 1004. The River Uji is in the Pro- 
vince of Omi, and drains into Lake Biwa. Seze is 
a village on the lake-side, and a suburb of the larger 
town of Otsu. The poet, looking across the river, can 
hardly make out the fish-nets on the shore at Seze, 
because of the rising morning mist. 



SAGAMI 

Urami wabi 
Hosanu sode dani 

Aru mono wo 
Koi ni kuchinamu 
Na koso oshikere. 




SAGAMI 



DE not displeased, but pardon me, 

If still my tears o'erflow ; 
My lover 's gone, and my good name, 

Which once I valued so, 

I fear must also go. 



This lady was the wife of Kinsuke Oye, the Governor 
of the Province of Sagami, from which she got her 
name. The verse is said to have been composed at 
an Imperial poetical contest in the year 1051. The 
incidents mentioned in these verses are not all supposed 
to have really taken place ; many of the poems, includ- 
ing this one, were simply written on a given subject 
for one of the poetical contests, which were so common 
at the period. v 



66 



DAISOJO GYOSON 

Morotomo ni 
Aware to omoe 

Yama zakura 
Hana yori hoka ni 
Shiru hito mo nashi. 




66 



THE ARCHBISHOP GYOSON 

IN lonely solitude I dwell, 

No human face I see ; 
And so we two must sympathize, 

Oh mountain cherry tree ; 

I have no friend but thee. 



The Archbishop is said to have ended his life in the 
year 1135, by the method described in the note to 
verse No. 12. The scene of this poem was the sacred 
mountain Omine, in the Province of Yamato, famous 
for its cherry blossoms, and the illustration shows the 
Priest with his two attendants addressing the cherry 
tree. 



SUWO NO NAISHI 

Haru no yo no 
Yume bakari naru 

Te-makura ni 
Kainaku tatan 
Na koso oshi kere. 





6 7 



THE LADY-IN-WAITING SUWO 

IF I had made thy proffered arm 
A pillow for my head 

For but the moment's time, in which 
A summer's dream had fled, 
What would the world have said ? 



The authoress was the daughter of Tsugunaka Taira, 
the Governor of the Province of Suwo, and a lady-in- 
waiting at the Court of the Emperor Goreizei, who 
reigned A.D. 1046-1068. She was present one day at 
a long and tedious court function, and, feeling very 
tired and sleepy, she called to a servant for a pillow ; 
a nobleman on the other side of the screen, the First 
Adviser of State Tadaie, gallantly offered her his arm, 
with a request that she would rest her head there, and 
she replied with this verse. She intended him to 
understand that, though she was willing to accept 
him as her husband for life, she feared that his attach- 
ment would last no longer than a fleeting summer- 
night's dream. 



PORTER 



68 



SANJO IN 

Kokoro ni mo 
Arade uki yo ni 

Nagaraeba 
Koishikarubeki 
Yowa no tsuki kana. 




68 

THE RETIRED EMPEROR SANJO 

IF in this troubled world of ours 
I still must linger on, 

My only friend shall be the moon, 
Which on my sadness shone, 
When other friends were gone. 



The Emperor Sanjo, who reigned A.D. 1012-1015, 
was the son of the Emperor Reisei ; he fell into ill 
health, his palace was burnt down twice, and he was 
forced to abdicate by Michinaga Fujiwara (see verse 
No. 59). 



K 2 



69 

NO-IN HOSHI 

Arashi fuku 
Mimuro no yama no 

Momiji-ba wa 
Tatsuta no kawa no 
Nishiki nari keri. 




THE PRIEST NO-IN 

I HE storms, which round Mount Mimuro 
Are wont to howl and scream, 

Have thickly scattered maple leaves 
Upon Tatsuta's stream ; 
Like red brocade they seem. 



The poet's lay name was Nagayasu Tachibana ; he 
was the son of Motoyasu Tachibana, the Governor of 
the Province of Hizen. Mount Mimuro and the Tat- 
suta River are both in the Province of Yamato, not far 
from Nara. The picture is not very clear, but the 
river is plainly depicted, and maple leaves are scattered 
all around. 



RIYO-ZEN HOSHI 

Sabishisa ni 
Yado wo tachi-idete 

Nagamureba 
Izuko mo onaji 
Aki no yugure. 




70 

THE PRIEST RIYO-ZEN 

1 HE prospect from my cottage shows 

No other hut in sight ; 
The solitude depresses me, 

Like deepening twilight 

On a chill autumn night. 



Nothing is known of this author, but he appears to 
have lived during the eleventh century. The Priest 
appears in the illustration, looking out over the bare 
landscape, with his tiny hut in the background. 



DAI-NAGON TSUNE-NOBU 

Yusareba 
Kado-da no inaba 

Otozurete 
Ashi no maroya ni 
Aki kaze zo fuku. 




THE FIRST ADVISER OF STATE TSUNE-NOBU 

THIS autumn night the wind blows shrill, 

And would that I could catch 
Its message, as it whistles through 

The rushes in the thatch 

And leaves of my rice-patch. 



Tsune-nobu, a member of the Minamoto family, was 
famous as a man of letters in the eleventh century, and 
died in the year 1096. 



YUSHI NAISHINNO KE KII 

Oto ni kiku 
Takashi no hama no 

Adanami wa 
Kakeji ya sode no 
Nure mo koso sure. 




THE LADY KII, OF THE HOUSE OF PRINCESS 
YUSHI 

THE sound of ripples on the shore 

Ne'er fails at Takashi ; 
My sleeves all worn and wet with tears 

Should surely prove to thee, 

I, too, will constant be. 



The Lady Kii lived at the Court of the Emperor 
Horikawa, who reigned A.D. 1087-1107. Takashi is a 
seaside place in the Province of Izumi, not far from 
Osaka, and on the shore we see the Lady Kii, perhaps 
composing this verse to her lover. 



73 



GON CHU-NAGON MASAFUSA 

Takasago no 
Onoe no zakura 

Saki ni keri 
Toyama no kasumi 
Tatazu mo aranan. 







73 



THE ASSISTANT IMPERIAL ADVISER MASAFUSA 

LHE cherry trees are blossoming 

On Takasago's height ; 
Oh may no mountain mist arise, 
No clouds so soft and white, 
To hide them from our sight. 



This poet was the son of Chika-nari Ooi, and died in 
the year 1112. Takasago is on the sea-coast in the 
Province of Harima, and is also mentioned in verse 
No. 34. 

Masafusa with his attendant appears in the illustra- 
tion admiring the cherry trees on the mountains, over 
which, however, the clouds are already beginning to 
gather. 



MINAMOTO NO TOSHI-YORI ASON 

Ukari keru 
Hito wo Hatsuse no 

Yama-oroshi 
Hageshikare to wa 
Inoranu mono wo. 




74 



THE MINISTER TOSHI-YORI MINAMOTO 

OH ! Kwannon, Patron of this hill, 
The maid, for whom I pine, 

Is obstinate and wayward, like 
The gusts around thy shrine. 
What of those prayers of mine ? 



Toshi-yori is supposed to have been the son of the 
writer of verse No. 71 ; he probably lived early in the 
twelfth century. Hatsuse is a mountain village near 
Nara, in the Province of Yamato ; the temple there 
is dedicated to Kwannon, Goddess of Mercy, * who 
looketh for ever down above the sound of prayer.' 



75 




FUJIWARA NO MOTOTOSHI 

Chigiri okishi 
Sasemo ga tsuyu wo 

Inochi nite 
Aware kotoshi no 
Aki mo inumeri. 




75 

MOTOTOSHI FUJIWARA 

IT is a promise unfulfilled, 
For which I humbly sue ; 

The dainty little mugwort plant 
Relies upon the dew, 
And I rely on you. 



The writer lived early in the twelfth century, when 
the Court was given over to intrigue. Tadamichi 
Fujiwara, the Regent, had promised him a post of 
honour for his son, but had, year after year, failed to 
fulfil it. The verse is a gentle reminder, and the last 
couplet, which does not appear in the translation, 
delicately hints that the autumn of the present year 
also is slipping away. In the illustration we see Moto- 
toshi addressing his petition to the Regent. 



PORTER 



7 6 



HOSHO-JI NYUDO SAKI NO KWAMBAKU 
DAIJODAIJIN 

Wada no Kara 
Kogi idete mireba 

Hisakata no 
Kumoi ni magau 
Okitsu shira nami. 




7 6 



THE LATE REGENT AND PRIME MINISTER, 
THE LAY PRIEST OF THE HOSHO TEMPLE 

WHEN rowing on the open sea, 
The waves, all capped with white, 

Roll onward, like the fleecy clouds 
With their resistless might ; 
Truly a wondrous sight ! 



The real name of this poet was Tadamichi Fujiwara, 
mentioned in connexion with the previous verse, who 
retired from the world and entered the church. He 
was the father of the author of verse No. 95, and is 
supposed to have died in the year 1164, at the age of 
sixty-eight. 

The ' pillow-word ' bisakata, here used in connexion 
with the clouds, is referred to in the note to verse 
No. 33. 



L 2 



77 



Se wo hayami 
Iwa ni sekaruru 

Taki-gawa no 
Warete mo sue ni 
Awan to zo omou. 





77 



THE RETIRED EMPEROR SUTOKU 

IHE rock divides the stream in two, 
And both with might and main 

Go tumbling down the waterfall ; 
But well I know the twain 
Will soon unite again. 



The town of Kamakura, where is the great bronze 
image of Buddha Amida, was built by this Emperor, 
who reigned A.D. 1124-1141 ; he was then forced by 
his father, the ex-Emperor Toba, to abdicate in favour 
of his brother, the Emperor Konoye ; afterwards he 
ntered the church, and died in the year 1164, an 
xile in the Province of Sanuki. This verse is in- 
ended to suggest the parting of two lovers, who will 
ventually meet again. 



MINAMOTO NO KANEMASA 

Awaji shima 
Kayou chidori no 

Naku koe ni 
Iku yo nezamenu 
Suma no seki-mori. 




7 8 



KANEMASA MINAMOTO 

BETWEEN Awaji and the shore 
The birds scream in their flight ; 

Full oft they've made the Suma Guard 
Toss through a sleepless night, 
Until the morning light. 



The writer was the son of Kanesuke, and died about 
the year 1112. Chidori are snipe or plovers, but here 
are apparently meant for seagulls. Awaji is a large 
island in the Inland Sea, near Kobe, and Suma is a 
point on the mainland in the Province of Settsu, 
immediately opposite. 



79 

SAKYO NO TAIU AKI-SUKE 

Aki kaze ni 
Tanabiku kumo no 

Taema yori 
More-izuru tsuki no 
Kage no sayakesa. 




79 



THE SHINTO OFFICIAL AKI-SUKE, OF THE 
LEFT SIDE OF THE CAPITAL 

SEE, how the wind of autumn drives 
The clouds to left and right, 

While in between the moon peeps out, 
Dispersing with her light 
The darkness of the night. 



Aki-suke died about the year 1155. More-izuru 
literally means, that the light of the moon ' leaks out ' ; 
the verse is a charming example of a Japanese picture- 
poem. Probably the first word of the verse was 
purposely made to coincide with the poet's first name 
in sound, although the two words are written with 
different characters in the original. 



8o 



TAIKEN MON-IN HORIKAWA 

Nagakaran 
Kokoro mo shirazu 

Kuro kami no 
Midarete kesa wa 
Mono wo koso omoe. 




86 



LADY HORIKAWA, IN ATTENDANCE ON THE 
DOWAGER EMPRESS TAIKEN 

MY doubt about his constancy 

Is difficult to bear ; 
Tangled this morning are my thoughts, 

As is my long black hair. 

I wonder Does he care? 



Lady Horikawa was the daughter of the First Ad- 
viser of State, Sane-kyo, who lived about the year 1 142. 
In this verse she is anxiously pondering, how long her 
lover will continue to be true to her ; and she dis- 
covers, that her ideas on the subject are as tangled and 
disordered as her hair is. 



8i 



GO TOKUDAI-JI SADAIJIN 

Hototogisu 
Nakitsuru kata wo 

Nagamureba 
Tada ariake no 
Tsuki zo nokoreru. 





8i 



THE MINISTER-OF-THE-LEFT OF THE 
TOKUDAI TEMPLE 

1 HE cuckoo's echo dies away, 
And lo ! the branch is bare ; 

I only see the morning moon, 
Whose light is fading there 
Before the daylight's glare. 



The writer's name was Sanesada Fujiwara, and he 
entered the priesthood in the year 1198. The cuckoo, 
according to Japanese tradition, cries through the 
night until its eyes become bloodshot. It is supposed 
to come from the Spirit-land across the mountains of 
Hades, about the end of the fifth month, to warn the 
farmer that it is time to sow his rice. In the illustra- 
tion we see the morning moon setting behind the hills, 
and the cuckoo flying away. 



82 




DO-IN HOSHI 

Omoi-wabi 
Satemo inochi wa 

Aru mono wo 
Uki ni taenu wa 
Namida nari keri. 




82 

THE PRIEST DO-IN 

HOW sad and gloomy is the world, 
This world of sin and woe ! 

Ah ! while I drift along Life's stream, 
Tossed helpless to and fro, 
My tears will ever flow. 



The Priest Do-in was a member of the Fujiwara 
family. The date of this verse is not known, but it 
was probably written in the twelfth century. The 
illustration shows the priest alone in his hut, lamenting 
over the sorrows of humanity. 



KWO-TAI-KOGU NO TAIU TOSHI-NARI 

Yo no naka yo 
Michi koso nakere 

Omoi iru 

Yama no oku ni mo 
Shika zo naku naru. 




TOSHI-NARI, A SHINTO OFFICIAL IN 
ATTENDANCE ON THE EMPRESS DOWAGER 

FROM pain and sorrow all around 

There 's no escape, I fear ; 
To mountain wilds should I retreat, 

There also I should hear 

The cry of hunted deer. 



Toshi-nari was a celebrated poet and nobleman in 
the reign of the Emperor Gotoba. He, however, gave 
up his position at Court and entered the church in the 
year 1176. He was the father of the writers of verses 
Nos. 94 and 97, and died in the year 1204, at the age 
of ninety-one. 



PORTER 



8 4 



Nagaraeba 
Mata konogoro ya 

Shinobaremu 
Ushi to mishi yo zo 
Ima wa koishiki. 




8 4 



THE MINISTER KIYO-SUKE FUJIWARA 

1 IME was when I despised my youth, 

As boyhood only can ; 
What would I give for boyhood now, 

When finishing life's span 

An old decrepid man ! 



Kiyo-suke was the son of the writer of verse No. 79, 
and lived in the latter part of the twelfth century. 



M 2 



SHUN-YE HOSHI 

Yomosugara 
Mono omou koro wa 

Ake yarade 
Neya no hima sae 
Tsurena kari keri. 







THE PRIEST SHUN- YE 

ALL through the never-ending night 
I lie awake and think ; 

In vain I look to try and see 
The daybreak's feeble blink 
Peep through the shutter's chink. 



This priest was the son of the author of verse No. 74. 
He describes in this poem a sleepless night, when he 
looks in vain to catch the first glimpse of daybreak 
through the joints of the sliding screens, that form the 
walls of a Japanese house. But in the picture, as will 
be noticed, one of the sliding screens is removed, in 
order to show the priest within. 



86 



SAIGYO HOSHI 

Nageke tote 
Tsuki ya wa mono wo 

Omowasuru 
Kakochi-gao naru 
Waga namida kana. 







86 

THE PRIEST SAIGYO 

O'ERCOME with pity for this world, 
My tears obscure my sight ; 

I wonder, can it be the moon 
Whose melancholy light 
Has saddened me to-night? 



Saigyo was a member of the Fujiwara family, an 
eccentric monk, and a famous poet, who lived A.D. 1115- 
ii 88. He was once in attendance on the Emperor, 
when a bird by fluttering its wings began scattering 
the blossoms of a plum tree. The Emperor directed 
him to drive off the bird, but the priest, with an excess 
of zeal, killed it by a stroke of his fan. On reaching 
home his wife told him that she had dreamt that she 
was changed into a bird and that he Jiad struck her ; 
and this incident made such an impression upon him, 
that he retired from Court, and spent the rest of his 
life in the church. 



8 7 

JAKU-REN HOSHI 

Murasame no 
Tsuyu mo mada hinu 

Maki no ha ni 
Kiri tachi-noboru 
Aki no yugure. 




8 7 



THE PRIEST JAKU-REN 

THE rain, which fell from passing showers, 

Like drops of dew, still lies 
Upon the fir-tree needles, and 

The mists of evening rise 

Up to the autumn skies. 



This verse is a good example of a picture verse, 
intended to call up the scene to one's imagination. 
Jaku-ren was another of the great Fujiwara clan, and 
lived about the end of the twelfth century. 

Murasame means ' rain falling in showers, here and 
there ', and the illustration plainly shows it raining on 
one side of the house only. 



88 



KWOKA MON-IN NO BETTO 

Naniwa e no 
Ashi no karine no 

Hito yo yue 
Mi wo tsukushite ya 
Koi wataru beki. 




AN OFFICIAL OF THE DOWAGER EMPRESS 
KWOKA 

I'VE seen thee but a few short hours ; 
As short, they seemed to me, 

As bamboo reeds at Naniwa ; 
But tide-stakes in the sea 
Can't gauge my love for thee. 



This verse was written some time in the twelfth 
century ; and Naniwa is the ancient name of Osaka. 

There are several double meanings in this verse ; 
lines 2 and 3 can mean either ' one section of a reed 
cut off between the joints ', or ' one night's sleep as 
short as a reed '. In the fourth line also, miotsukushi 
means a tide-gauge, as explained in the note to verse 
No. 20, but the whole line, taken as printed, reads, 
' How can I be already tired of thee ! ' The contrast 
here is between the length of only one section of a 
short reed and the long stake set up to measure the 
rise and fall of the tide. 

The illustration seems to show the lady to whom 
the verse was addressed. 



8 9 

SHIKISHI NAISHINNO 

Tama no o yo 
Taenaba taene 

Nagaraeba 
Shinoburu koto no 
Yowari mo zo suru. 




8 9 



PRINCESS SHIKISHI 

1HE ailments of advancing years 

Though I should try to hide, 
Some day the thread will break, the pearls 

Be scattered far and wide ; 

Age cannot be defied. 



The Princess was the daughter of the Emperor 
Goshirakawa, who reigned A.D. 1156-1158. In this 
short reign, however, the country suffered from a very 
severe earthquake and a devastating civil war. 

The second line is a play upon the two verbs tae, 
which are both pronounced the same, but which are 
written with different ideographic characters. The 
first couplet, taken literally, reads, 'If the string of 
pearls (i. e. my life) break, I must bear it.' 

The illustration seems to show the Princess sitting 
down with a nobleman in attendance. 



9 o 

IMPU MON-IN NO OSUKE 

Misebayana 
Ojima no ama no 

Sode dani no 
Nure ni 20 nureshi 
Iro wa kawaraji. 




9 o 



THE CHIEF VICE-OFFICIAL IN ATTENDANCE 
ON THE DOWAGER EMPRESS 1MPU 

1 HE fisher's clothes, though cheap, withstand 

The drenching they receive ; 
But see ! my floods of tears have blurred 

The colours of my sleeve, 

As for thy love I grieve. 



The writer is said to have been one of the Fujiwara 
family, and to have died in the year 1210. Ojima is 
an island in the Inland Sea. 

In the last line the word iro can mean both ' colour ' 
and ' love ' ; so that the meaning is, the writer's love 
will remain as constant as the colour of the fisher's 
clothes, even though drenched with salt water. In 
connexion with this word iro, it may be mentioned 
that a crimson maple leaf, when sent by a lady to her 
lover, is a gentle hint that she wishes to see him no 
more ; the meaning being, that as the colour (iro) of 
the leaf has changed, so her love (iro) has changed also. 



GO-KYO-GOKU SESSHO SAKI NO DAIJODAIJIN 

Kirigirisu 
Naku ya shimo yo no 

Samushiro ni 
Koromo katashiki 
Hitori kamo nen. 




THE REGENT AND FORMER PRIME MINISTER 
GO-KYO-GOKU 

I'M sleeping all alone, and hear 
The crickets round my head ; 

So cold and frosty is the night, 
That I across the bed 
My koromo have spread. 



This writer was another of the great Fujiwara family, 
and died in the year 1206. 

The word kirigirisu, a cricket, is supposed to repre- 
sent its song ; the Japanese say that the chirping of 
crickets means cold weather. 

In the picture the poet is sitting up in bed with his 
arm on his pillow, listening to the crickets ; and in 
the original illustrated edition underneath the verse 
is drawn a cricket hiding in the grass. 



PORTER 



NIJO IN SANUKI 

Waga sode wa 
Shiohi ni mienu 

Oki no ishi no 
Hito koso shirane 
Kawaku ma mo nashi. 




SANUKI, IN ATTENDANCE ON THE RETIRED 
EMPEROR NIJO 

MY sleeve is wet with floods of tears 

As here I sit and cry ; 
'Tis wetter than a low-tide rock, 

No one, howe'er he try, 

Can find a spot that 's dry ! 



The Lady Sanuki was one of the Minamoto family, 
and lived at the Court of the Emperor Nijo, who 
reigned A.D. 1159-1165. She was the daughter of the 
retired Emperor Goshirakawa, and died A.D. 1165. 



N 2 



93 



KAMAKURA UDAIJIN 

Yo no naka wa 
Tsune ni moga mo na 

Nagisa kogu 
Ama no obune no 
Tsunade kanashi mo. 




93 



THE MINISTER OF THE RIGHT DISTRICT OF 
KAMAKURA 

I LOVE to watch the fishing-boats 

Returning to the bay, 
The crew, all straining at the oars, 

And coiling ropes away ; 

For busy folk are they. 



The name of the writer of this verse was Sanetomo 
Minamato, the second son of the great General Yori- 
tomo. He was a famous man of letters, and was 
murdered in the year 1219 by his nephew, the Priest 
Kugyo, at the Temple of Hachiman at Kamakura, 
whither he had gone to return thanks for his promotion 
to a high office of state. He seems to have had a 
premonition of his coming fate ; for that morning, 
while being dressed, he composed the farewell poem 
to his plum tree given in the Introduction, and pulling 
out a hair he gave it to his servant, bidding him keep 
it in memory of him. The assassin sprang out from 
behind a tree, which is still pointed out to-day, grow- 
ing at the side of the temple steps, cut him down, 
and ran off with the head. Kugyo was caught and 
executed, but the head was never found, and so the 
single hair was buried in its stead. 



94 



SANGI MASATSUNE 

Miyoshino no 
Yama no aki kaze 

Sayo fukete 
Furu sato samuku 
Koromo utsu nari. 




94 



THE PRIVY COUNCILLOR MASATSUNE 

AROUND Mount Miyoshino's crest 
The autumn winds blow drear ; 

The villagers are beating cloth, 
Their merry din I hear, 
This night so cold and clear. 



Masatsune was a son of the writer of verse No. 83 ; 
he died in the year 1221. He appears in the illustra- 
tion sitting alone in his house, listening to the sound 
of the villagers beating the cloth to make it supple. 



95 

SAKI NO DAISOJO JIYEN 

Okenaku 
Uki yo no tami ni 

Ou kana 

Waga tatsu soma ni 
Sumizome no sode. 




95 

THE FORMER ARCHBISHOP JIYEN 

UNFIT to rule this wicked world 
With all its pomp and pride, 

I'd rather in my plain black robe 
A humble priest abide, 
Far up the mountain side. 



The Archbishop was a son of the author of verse 
No. 76. He had just been promoted to his exalted 
rank, which entailed living at the Temple of Mount 
Hiei, near Kyoto, and this is his modest deprecatory 
verse on his new appointment. He is said to have put 
an end to his life by the method described in the note 
to verse No. 12. 

In the picture we see the Archbishop in his robes, 
and the great Temple of Mount Hiei, while in the 
distance are the wild hills where he longs to be. 



9 6 

NYUDO SAKI DAIJODAIJIN 

Hana sasou 
Arashi no niwa no 

Yuki narade 
Furi yuku mono wa 
Waga mi nari keri. 




9 6 



THE LAY-PRIEST, A FORMER PRIME MINISTER 
OF STATE 

1 HIS snow is not from blossoms white 
Wind-scattered, here and there, 

That whiten 1 all my garden paths 
And leave the branches bare ; 
'Tis age that snows my hair ! 



The writer's name was Kintsune ; he retired from 
office J:o enter the church, and died in the year 1244, 
aged seventy-six. 

Note the play upon yuki, ' snow,' and yuku, the verb 
' to go ' ; furi yuku means ' going to fall ' (as snow), 
but furi also suggests the idea of ' growing old '. He 
says it is really he himself that is fading and falling, 
rather than the petals of his garden flowers blown by 
the storm. 

The picture does not seem to illustrate the verse 
very well ; it is probably meant to show Kintsune on 
his verandah, lamenting over his increasing years ; but 
in the original edition, from which the pictures were 
taken, fallen cherry blossoms are shown underneath 
the verse at the bottom of the page. 



97 

GON CHU-NAGON SADA-IYE 

Konu hito wo 
Matsu-ho no ura no 

Yunagi ni 
Yaku ya moshio no 
Mi mo kogare-tsutsu. 




97 



THE ASSISTANT IMPERIAL ADVISER SADA-IYE 

UPON the shore of Matsu-ho 
For thee I pine and sigh ; 

Though calm and cool the evening air, 
These salt-pans caked and dry 
Are not more parched than I ! 



Sada-iye, of the Fujiwara family, was the Compiler 
of this Collection of verses ; he was the son of Toshi- 
nari, the writer of verse No. 83, and he entered the 
priesthood, dying in the year 1242, at the age of 
eighty. 

Matsu-bd is on the north coast of the Island of 
Awaji, in the Inland Sea ; but the word also means 
' a place of waiting and longing for somebody '. Kogare 
means ' scorching or evaporating ' (sear water in the salt- 
pans), but it also has the meaning ' to long for, or to 
love ardently.' 

The illustration shows two men carrying pails of 
sea-water to the salt-pans. 



9 8 



JUNII 1YE-TAKA 

Kaze soyogu 
Nara no ogawa no 

Yugure wa 
Misogi zo natsu no 
Shirushi nari keri. 




THE OFFICIAL IYE-TAKA 

THE twilight dim, the gentle breeze 
By Nara's little stream, 

The splash of worshippers who wash 
Before the shrine, all seem 
A perfect summer's dream. 



lye-taka was another of the great Fujiwara family ; 
he died in the year 1237. 

The word misogi means the Shinto ceremony of 
purifying the body before worship by washing or 
sprinkling with water. This verse is said to have been 
inscribed on a screen in the apartments of the Empress 
at Nara. 



99 



GOTOBA NO IN 

Hito mo oshi 
Hito mo urameshi 

Ajiki-naku 

Yo wo omou yue ni. 
Mono omou mi wa. 







99 

THE RETIRED EMPEROR GOTOBA 

HOW I regret my fallen friends 

How I despise my foes ! 
And, tired of life, I only seek 

To reach my long day's close, 

And gain at last repose. 



The Emperor Gotoba, or Toba II, reigned A.D. 1 186- 

98. He was the son of the retired Emperor Taka- 

ra, and was banished to Amagori, in the Oki Island?, 

lere he took the name of Sen-Tei, busied himself in 

aking swords, and died in the year 1239. He was 

ry sensitive to noises, and it is said that the frogs of 

e pool of Shike-kuro have been dumb ever since the 

ar 1 200 ; for their croaking at night disturbed his 

st, and he commanded them to be silent. It was 

the eleventh year of his reign that the title of 

ogun was created and conferred upon the great 

eneral Yoritomo ; which title, down to the year 

68, was borne by the real rulers of the country, 

Emperor himself being not much more than a 

oire-head. 

Notice the resemblance in sound between the first 
d second lines, and between the fourth and fifth 
cs, not fully brought out in the translation. 
PORTER o 



100 



JUN-TOKU IN 

Momoshiki ya 
Furuki nokiba no 

Shinobu ni mo 
Nao amari aru 
Mukashi nari keri. 




100 

THE RETIRED EMPEROR JUN-TOKU 

MY ancient Palace I regret, 
Though rot attacks the eaves, 

And o'er the roof the creeping vine 
Spreads out and interweaves 
Unpruned its straggling leaves. 



This writer was the third son of the Emperor 
Gotoba, author of the previous verse ; he reigned 
A.D. 1211-1221, and was deposed like his father, and 
banished to the Island of Sado. It was during his 
reign that the first Japanese warships were built by 
Sanetomo, the writer of verse No. 93, who headed 
a rebellion against the Emperor. 

Shinobu means ' a creeping vine ', but it is also the 
erb ' to long for ' ; and the verse suggests that the 
emperor, while mourning over the decay of the Im- 
perial power, still longs for the old Palace, neglected 
and grown over with creepers as it is. 

And so the Collection ends, as it began, with two 
verses by Imperial poets. 



O 2 



INDEX 

Ah ! why does love distract my thoughts, 14. 
Ai-mite no, 43. 
Akenureba, 52. 
Aki kaze ni, 79. 
Aki no ta no, i . 

Alas 1 the blush upon my cheek, 40. 
All red with leaves Tatsuta's stream, 17. 
All through the long and dreary night, 53. 
All through the never-ending night, 85. 
Although I know the gentle night, 52. 
Ama no bara, 7. 
Amatsu kaze, 12. 
Arashi fuku, 69. 

Araxaramu, 56. , 

Ariake no, 30. 
Arima yama, 58. 

Around Mount Miyoshino's crest, 94. 
Asaborake, 31, 64. 
Asaju no, 39. 

As fickle as the mountain gusts, 58. 
Asbibiki no, 3. 
Au koto no, 44. 
Awaji sbima, 78. 

Aware to mo, 45. 



INDEX 

Be not displeased, but pardon me, 65. 
Between Awaji and the shore, 78. 

Chigiriki na, 42. 
Cbigiri okisbi, 75. 
Chi baya furu, ij. 

Death had no terrors, Life no joys, 50. 

From pain and sorrow all around, 83. 
Fuku kara ni, 22. 

Gone are my old familiar friends, 34. 

Hana no iro tva, 9. 

Hana sason, 96. 

Haru no yo no, 67. 

Haru sugite, 2. 

Hisakata no, 33. 

Hito mo osbt, 99. 

Hito toa tza, 35. 

Hototogisu, 8 1. 

How desolate my former life, 43. 

How difficult it is for men, 54. 

How I regret my fallen friends, 99. 

How sad and gloomy is the world, 82. 

I bring no prayers on coloured silk, 24. 
I dare not hope my lady-love, 45. 
If breezes on Inaba's peak, 16. 



INDEX 

If I had made thy proffered arm, 67. 

If in this troubled world of ours, 68. 

If we could meet in privacy, 63. 

I hate the cold unfriendly moon, 30. 

I hear the stag's pathetic call, 5. 

I hear thou art as modest as, 25. 

I love to watch the fishing-boats, 93. 

Ima kon to, 21. 

Ima wa tada, 63. 

I'm sleeping all alone, and hear, 91. 

Inisbie no, 61. 

In lonely solitude I dwell, 66. 

I started off along the shore, 4. 

It is a promise unfulfilled, 75. 

It was a white chrysanthemum, 29. 

I've seen thee but a few short hours, 88. 

I wandered forth this moonlight night, 57. 

Kaku to dani, 51. 
Kasasagi no, 6. 
Kaze soyogu, 98. 
Kaze wo itami, 48. 
Kimi ga tame, 15, 50. 
Kirigirisu, 91. 
Koi su tefu, 41. 
Kokoro-ate ni, 29. 
Kokoro ni mo, 68. 
Kono tabi wa, 24. 
Konu bito wo, 97. 
Kore ya kono, 10. 



INDEX 

Long is the mountain pheasant's tail, 3. 



Meguri-aite, 57. 

Michinoku no, 14. 

Mikaki mart, 49. 

Mika no bara, 27. 

Misebayana, 90. 

Miyoshino no, 94. 

Momosbiki ya, 100. 

Morotomo ni, 66. 

Mother, for thy sake I have been, 15. 

Murasame no, 87. 

My ancient Palace I regret, 100. 

My broken heart I don't lament, 38. 

My constancy to her I love, 49. 

My doubt about his constancy, 80. 

My home is near the Capital, 8. 

My life is drawing to a close, 56. 

My little temple stands alone, 47. 

My sleeve is wet with floods of tears, 92. 



Nagakaran, 80. 
Nagaraeba, 84. 
Nagcke tote, 86. 
N ageki-tsutsu, 53. 
Na ni sbi owaba, 25. 
Naniwa e no, 88. 
Naniwa gata, 19. 
Natsu no yo wa, 36. 



INDEX 

O'ercome with pity for this world, 86. 

Ogura yama, 26. 

Oh ! Fishers in your little boats, 1 1. 

Oh 1 Kwannon, Patron of this hill, 74. 

Oh ! rippling River Izumi, 27. 

Oboye yama, 60. 

Oh stormy winds, bring up the clouds, 12. 

Okenaku, 95. 

Oku yama ni, 5. 

Omoi-wabi, 82. 

Oto ni kiku, 72. 

Our courtship, that we tried to hide, 41. 

Our sleeves, all wet with tears, attest, 42. 

Out in the fields this autumn day, i. 

Sabisbisa ni, 70. 

See, how the wind of autumn drives, 79. 

Se wo bayami, 77. 

Sbinoburedo, 40. 

Sbira tsuyu ni, 37. 

Short as the joints of bamboo reeds, 19. 

So long and dreary is the road, 60. 

So thickly lies the morning mist, 64. 

Surely the morning moon, I thought, 31. 

Sumi-no-ye no, 18. 

Tacbi wakare, 16. 
Tago no ura ni, 4. 
Takasago no, 73. 
Taki no oto wa, 5$. 



INDEX 

Tama no o yo, 89. 

Tare wo ka mo, 34. 

The ailments of advancing years, 89. 

The blossom's tint is washed away, 9. 

The cherry trees are blossoming, 73. 

The cuckoo's echo dies away, 81. 

The double cherry trees, which grew, 61. 

The fisher's clothes, though cheap, withstand, 90. 

The fishing-boats are tossed about, 46. 

The maples of Mount Ogura, 26. 

The Mina stream comes tumbling down, 13. 

The moon that shone the whole night through, 21. 

The mountain village solitude, 28. 

The mountain wind in autumn time, 22. 

The prospect from my cottage shows, 70. 

The rain, which fell from passing showers, 87. 

The rock divides the stream in two, 77. 

The sound of ripples on the shore, 72. 

The spring has come, and once again, 33. 

The spring has gone, the summer 's come, 2. 

The storms, which round Mount Mimuro, 69. 

The stormy winds of yesterday, 32. 

The stranger who has travelled far, 10. 

The twilight dim, the gentle breeze, 98. 

The village of my youth is gone, 35. 

The waves that dash against the rocks, 48. 

This autumn night the wind blows shrill, 71. 

This lovely morn the dewdrops flash, 37. 

This night the cheerless autumn moon, 23. 

This snow is not from blossoms white, 96. 



INDEX 

This waterfall's melodious voice, 55. 

Though love, like blisters made from leaves, 51. 

Time was when I despised my youth, 84. 

'Tis easier to hide the reeds, 39. 

To fall in love with womankind, 44. 

To-night on Sumi-no-ye beach, 18. 

Too long to-night you've lingered here, 62. 

Too short the lovely summer night, 36. 

Tsuki mireba, 23. 

Tsukuba ne no, 13. 

Ukari keru, 74. 

Unfit to rule this wicked world, 95. 
Upon the shore of Matsu-hS, 97. 
Urami tcabi, 65. 

Wabi nureba, 20. 

Wada no bar a, n, 76. 

Waga ibo toa, 8. 

Waga sode v>a, 92. 

Waiting and hoping for thy step, 59. ' 

Wasuraruru, 38. 

Wasureji no, 54. 

We met but for a moment, and, 20. 

When on the Magpies' Bridge I see, 6. 

When rowing on the open sea, 76. 

While gazing up into the sky, 7. 

Yaemugura, 47. 
Yama gawa MI, 32. 



INDEX 

Tama zato via, 28. 
Tasuratoade, 59. 
Tomosugara, 85. 
To no ndka wa, 93. 
To no naka yo, 83 
To too komete, 62. 
Tura no to too, 46. 
Tusareba, 71. 



Oxford : Printed at the Clarendon Press by HORACE HART, MJ 



2 5 1990 



Robarts Library 

DUE DATE: 

Feb. 13, 1995 

Fines 500 per day